Operators of industrial-size centralized hot-water- and steam-generating facilities on college, hospital, and government campuses are under increasing pressure to restrict nitrogen-oxide (NOx) emissions, as state environmental agencies enforce federal law intended to decrease respiratory-related health concerns. The focus of this article is on reducing NOx formation at the burner.
There are three major types of combustion-related NOx: thermal, fuel bound, and prompt.
Thermal. Thermal NOx is created by high flame temperature in the presence of oxygen. The key to limiting thermal NOx is to reduce peak flame temperature and restrict oxygen availability and exposure at peak temperature. There are two main ways burner manufacturers have accomplished this without post-combustion control: steam injection and flue-gas recirculation (FGR).
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Steam injection—injecting steam into a flame—works because steam temperature is considerably lower than flame temperature—in the case of a boiler operating at 300 psig, 421°F vs. 2,400°F to 3,400°F. Also, steam is pure water, which is not free oxygen.
FGR is the process by which exhaust gas is introduced into the combustion-air stream prior to a burner. Flue gas also is relatively cool (300°F to 550°F, depending on the design of the boiler and whether there is a feedwater economizer) with respect to flame temperature, and flue gas has little oxygen from the combustion process.
FGR is more prevalent than steam injection simply because of economics—generating steam for injection is more expensive.
Fuel bound. Fuel-bound NOx is inherent in fuel and cannot be reduced, except via post-combustion processes. Compared with other fuels, such as oil, the fuel-bound nitrogen in natural gas is low and considered insignificant.
Prompt. Prompt NOx “occurs through early reactions of nitrogen molecules in the combustion air and hydrogen radicals from the fuel.”¹ Recent “ultralow-NOx” designs have limited the generation of prompt NOx by minimizing the formation of substoichiometric regions in the flame.
Packaging Detail:Wooden box package of Low-NOx Emission Burners for Industrial Boilers
Delivery Detail:20-40 days after payment
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