This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.
The thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers is not a common practice in Brazil. Although the process of bagasse combustion represents most important sources of irreversibilities, this subject has not received sufficient attention because saving bagasse is not yet a top priority in the Brazilian sugar industry.The main disadvantage of these methods is that they are based on a "quantitative" approach therefore do not consider the quality differencies between temperature levels. Therefore, some authors have proposed and studied a thermodynamic performance using "exergy" as a tool. Based on these experiments, a method is proposed here which uses concepts derived from both the 1st and 2nd Laws combined, known as the exergy method, for the thermodynamic analysis of boilers using wet sugarcane bagasse as a fuel.
The method presented was originally developed by Jordan (1988) for Texas lignite fired boilers. For the thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers, first a standard reaction for firing wet bagasse (without ash) is presented. Then, the standard reaction is compared with the actual reaction, using data collected in a Zanini/Foster-Wheeler model ZFW - SF150 bagasse boiler with 80 t vapor/h nominal capacity installed at a sugar mill near Campinas, SP, Brazil. Specific features of the boiler, such as grill type, temperature and profile during combustion, are not included because this method allows a thermodynamic analysis of the whole boiler as a system, considering only the main flowrates crossing the control volume.
In order to conduct the exergy method, it was necessary to obtain actual samples from the boiler to be studied. The samples were made for the fuel (wet bagasse), the particulate and the ash.
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